Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

cataract is a dense, cloudy area forms in the lens of the eye. It develops at a slow rate and eventually interferes with the eye. People might end up with cataracts in both eyes, but they usually don’t form at the same time. Cataracts are common in older people and over half of people in the United States have cataracts or have undergone cataract surgery by the time they’re 80 years old. In this session details will be discussed about the causes and types of cataract such as age-related cataractscongenital cataractssecondary cataractstraumatic cataractsnuclear cataractscortical cataracts and posterior sub capsular cataracts. When the eye lenses get the opportunity to be shady, Cataract evacuation is for the most part supported, in this way Cataract surgery like Cryoextraction is performed. In Cataract surgery, the lens inside the eye has wound up shady is removed and supplanted with a mimicked lens to restore clear vision. The system is performed on an outpatient start and does not require an overnight stay in a centre. Most present Cataract surgery integrates the usage of a high repeat ultrasound device that segregates cloudy lens into minute pieces, which are then carefully removed from the eye with suction.

  • Track 1-1Age-related Cataracts
  • Track 1-2Congenital Cataracts
  • Track 1-3Traumatic Cataracts
  • Track 1-4Causes of Cataracts
  • Track 1-5Risk Associated with Cataract Surgery
  • Track 1-6Risk Associated with Cataract Surgery
  • Track 1-7Use of Intra ocular antibiotics to prevent infection in cataract surgeries

The human eye is an organ which reacts to the light and pressure. There are many conditions that can affect the eye, in most common eye conditions includes some serious and some less.  An eye condition doesn’t usually require medical attention and it will usually pass given time. If the symptoms last longer it starts to affect vision or cause pain, then seek medical treatments.


  • Track 2-1Aesthetic Eyelid Surgery
  • Track 2-2Entropion
  • Track 2-3Epiblepharon
  • Track 2-4Ptosis
  • Track 2-5Socket Reconstruction
  • Track 2-6Tearing Disorders
  • Track 2-7Thyroid Eye Disease
  • Track 2-8Drops for Dry Eye

Paediatric Ophthalmology also emphasis on featured issues which affects paediatric vision such as paediatric uveitisgenetic eye disease, expanding abnormalities and more. Lazy eye is also known as vision development disorder. Amblyopia is an eye issue which appears in kids and also present in adults. The implementation of this condition which includes the differences of vision in both the eyes i.e. the vision in one will be weaker when compared to other. It is advised to have regular vision screening of the child to avoid permanent vision damage. The starting symptoms includes, such as abnormal tilting, movements of the eye and improper alignment of both the eyes.

  • Track 3-1Childhood Tearing
  • Track 3-2Common Eyelid & orbital diseases in children
  • Track 3-3Visual Impairment
  • Track 3-4Developmental Abnormalities
  • Track 3-5Genetic Eye Disease
  • Track 3-6Orbital Infection
  • Track 3-7Paediatric Uveitis

Many people have eye issues at one time or another, some are minor and will go away on their own, or easy to treat at home and some others need a specialist’s care.  Many of the eye sicknesses have no early side effects as they might be effortless, and may see no adjustment in vision until the infection has turned out to be very best in class. The absolute ideal approach is to secure vision is through customary expert eye examinations and contact your eye mind proficient promptly.

  • Track 4-1Age-Related Macular Degeneration is the physical unsettling influence of the focal point of the retina called the macula
  • Track 4-2Swelling Eyes
  • Track 4-3Waterfalls in Babies
  • Track 4-4Visual impairment
  • Track 4-5Diabetic Macular Oedema, DME, is brought on by liquid collection in the macula. Patients with DME ordinarily encounter obscured vision which can be extreme
  • Track 4-6Keratoconus
  • Track 4-7Eyelid Twitching
  • Track 4-8Veterinary Ophthalmology
  • Track 4-9Neurologic Disorders
  • Track 4-10Lacrimal System Disorders
  • Track 4-11Connective Tissue Disorders
  • Track 4-12Genetic Disorders
  • Track 4-13Eyelid and Facial Squeezing Disorders
  • Track 4-14Oculoplastic and Tearing Disorders
  • Track 4-15Orbital Disorder
  • Track 4-16Structural Disorders
  • Track 4-17Vascular disorders
  • Track 4-18Inflammatory disorders

Veterinary ophthalmologists are veterinarians with advanced training in ocular medicine that allows them to diagnose and treat conditions of the eye including cataracts, corneal ulcers, conjunctivitis, uveitis, and glaucoma. They also provide treatment for traumatic eye injuries.

It covers the subject of veterinary ophthalmology, reconnaissance, clinical and comparative ophthalmology, research and reviews of naturally occurring ocular diseases in animals, experimental models of eye diseases of humans and animals, anatomy and physiology of animals' eye and ophthalmic pharmacology . There are also special editions devoted to hippo logical and teleological ophthalmology.

Ophthalmologic surgery is a surgical procedure performed on eye or any part of the eye. Surgery on the eye is routinely performed to repair retinal defects and to remove cataracts or cancer, or to repair eye muscles. The most common purpose of ophthalmologic surgery is to restore or improve vision. There are several types of ophthalmic surgeries for various eye conditions. There will be some conditions that might call for eye surgery, from corrective changes to vision sparing strategies by surgeons. Ophthalmology Surgery is the clinical ophthalmic research involving eye disordersvisionmedicalsurgical and optical care. Every treatment accompanies its own advantages, dangers, and signs for use. From restorative medications to orbital inserts, today's headways can handle every condition and practitioner give an effective arrangement.

  • Track 6-1Laser eye surgery
  • Track 6-2Corneal surgery
  • Track 6-3Vitreo-retinal surgery
  • Track 6-4Eye muscle surgery
  • Track 6-5Eyelid surgery
  • Track 6-6Orbital surgery
  • Track 6-7Oculoplastic surgery
  • Track 6-8Reconstructive Surgery
  • Track 6-9Orbital decompression surgery
  • Track 6-10Tear duct surgery
  • Track 6-11Oculofacial Plastic Surgery
  • Track 6-12Strabismus Surgery
  • Track 6-13Glaucoma Surgery
  • Track 6-14Cataract Surgery
  • Track 6-15Retinal Detachment Surgery
  • Track 6-16Retinal Replacement Surgery
  • Track 6-17Vision Correction Surgery
  • Track 6-18Canaloplasty
  • Track 6-19Refractive surgery

The most widely recognized vision issues are refractive conditions or refractive errors are known as partial blindnessfarsightednessastigmatism and presbyopiaRefractive blunders happen when the state of the eye keeps light from concentrating straightforwardly on the retina. The length of the eyeball changes fit as a fiddle of the cornea, or maturing of the lens can bring about refractive blunders. Many people have one or a greater amount of these conditions. This ophthalmologists 2018 will examine about Infection in the prebyopiaastigmatism.

lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of transparent material, while a compound lens consists of several simple lenses (elements), usually arranged along a common axis. Lenses are made up of glass or plastic, and ground and polished or moulded to a desired shape. A lens can focus light to form an image, unlike a prism, which refracts light without focusing. Devices that disperse waves and radiation other than visible light are also called lenses, such as microwave lenseselectron lensesacoustic lenses, or explosive lenses.

  • Track 7-1Myopia
  • Track 7-2Hyperopia
  • Track 7-3Presbyopia
  • Track 7-4Astigmatism

Ophthalmic medication conveyance is a standout amongst the most difficult and interesting endeavour to define without creating any tissue harm to the defensive obstructions of eye. Most normal ophthalmic arrangements are accessible as eye drops, arrangements, treatments which now a days are novel ophthalmic medication conveyance frameworks turned out to combat the present destructive diseases.

Ophthalmic medication conveyance frameworks are currently getting expanded consideration to some extent due to the normal rise of new medications with short organic half-experience whose convenience may rely on upon a more persistent medication supply than eye drops can give, additionally considering the capability of some conveyance frameworks to decrease the symptoms of the more powerful medications. The utilization of medication stacked contact focal points and visual additions enables medications to be better set where they are required for more straightforward conveyance. Advancements in visual inserts give a way to defeat the physical boundaries that generally counteracted successful treatment. Embed advances are a work in progress permitting long haul medicate conveyance from a solitary strategy these gadgets enable back chamber sicknesses to be successfully treated. Future improvements could bring fake corneas to take out the requirement for contributor tissue and erratic implantable medication warehouses enduring the patient's lifetime.

Conventional suspension, balm, gels, Vesicular, Liposomes, niosomes, pharmacosomes, Pariculate Micropartles, Nanoparticles/Nano spheres, Control discharge Implants, hydrogel Contact lenses, Hydrogels, micro needle, micro emulsion. Advanced-collagen shields, visual inserts (erodible, nonedible), gene conveyance, immature microorganism.

  • Track 8-1IVT injection-sparing approaches
  • Track 8-2Diagnostic dye solutions
  • Track 8-3Oral & topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs)
  • Track 8-4Transplantation technologies for retinal
  • Track 8-5Ocular & systemic side effects of drugs
  • Track 8-6Extended activity approaches

Tumour can create in a few structures in the eye zone and it happens when solid cells in or around the eye change and become wildly, shaping a mass called a tumour. A tumour can be favourable or destructive. A favourable tumour implies the tumour can develop but it won't spread. A harmful tumour is dangerous, which means it can develop and spread to different parts of the body and growth that structures in the eyeball is called an intraocular(inside the eye) threat. This incorporates sorts like retinoblastoma, which is the regular kind of growth influencing the eyeball in youngsters, Ophthalmologic disease, in which on the off chance that it influences internal part of the eye, those influencing the outside of the eye are additional visualOphthalmologic Tumours can be dealt with by chemotherapy; medication can be infused into the eye, making this treatment exceptionally valuable for growths that have spread. Chemotherapy can be valuable for treating intraocular (eye) lymphoma, and it is utilized less frequently for intraocular melanoma.


  • Track 9-1Administrative routes of Ocular Drugs
  • Track 9-2Special Forms of Ocular Drugs
  • Track 9-3Special Forms of Ocular Drugs
  • Track 9-4Modern day Ocular Drug Groups
  • Track 9-5Retinoblastoma
  • Track 9-6Malignant melanoma
  • Track 9-7Ocular metastasis
  • Track 9-8Ocular Pharmacotherapeutics
  • Track 9-9Visual Pharmacology manages the treatment calendar of the visual maladies
  • Track 9-10Confinement of medication use for Ophthalmologists

Removal of an eye, or the inside coats of an eye, may be necessary for various reasons. However, regardless of the underlying disorder, and whether the eye sees or not, the decision to have an eye removed can be a difficult and emotionally demanding one. Nevertheless, surgery and subsequent rehabilitation can lead to a very acceptable aesthetic result, and in many cases the symmetry and colour match between the artificial and natural eyes can be very good indeed.

Expulsion of an eye (an enucleation), or within an eye (a gutting), might be essential for an assortment of reasons. Despite the basic issue, and whether the eye sees or not, the choice to have an eye expelled can be troublesome and sincerely requesting. In any case, talented surgery joined with top of the line prosthetic care can prompt an extremely adequate tasteful outcome, and by and large the symmetry and shading match between the counterfeit and the kindred eye can be great undoubtedly. 

When all is said in done, it is smarter to maintain a strategic distance from surgery if conceivable, with painted contact focal points, or shells (acrylic counterfeit eyes) worn over a visually impaired eye frequently looking comparable to a genuine eye. Be that as it may, if a visually impaired eye ends up excruciating notwithstanding the utilization of drops, or a contact focal point or shell can't go on without serious consequences, or the patient does not have the manual adroitness required to expel the focal point or shell each night, at that point surgery ought to be considered as this tends to both the distress and permits a counterfeit eye (a visual prosthesis) to be worn constantly with just an extremely incidental requirement for its evacuation for cleaning.


  • Track 10-1Diagnosis and assessment of keratoconus
  • Track 10-2Orthokeratology lenses and contact fitting
  • Track 10-3Devices used in optometry

Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy, influences more than 50 million individuals and is the second driving reason for visual deficiency around the world. The part of intra Ocular Pressure (IOP) has been recorded as a noteworthy modifiable danger variable for glaucoma. Also, numerous glaucoma patients have low IOP, while some solid people have a moderately high IOP. The clutters can be separated into two primary classes, open-angle glaucoma and closed angle glaucoma. Disabled visual blood stream regulation in open angle glaucoma as a danger of glaucoma has been entrenched, particularly in the course of recent decades. Pathophysiology of glaucoma demonstrates towards the expanded in intraocular weight which packs and harms the optic nerve and once the optic nerve is harmed, it neglects to convey visual data and this outcome in loss of vision. The precise pathophysiology of glaucoma adding to this is yet to be resolved. Biomarkers for glaucoma have prescient utilization that could help and direct treatment in some glaucoma patients. Endothelin in glaucoma treatment assume an exceptionally part in pathogenesis of glaucoma. Glaucoma represents more than 10 million visits to doctors every year. Regarding social security advantages, lost wage charge incomes, and medicinal services consumptions, the expense to the U.S. government is assessed to be over $1.5 billion every year. The Glaucoma Research Society of Canada is the main Canadian non-benefit association committed to financing glaucoma research. In 1989, it has raised more than two million dollars in backing of 150 Bascom Palmer and Wills Eye are the top scientist association for glaucoma.

  • Track 11-1Open angle and angle-closed glaucoma
  • Track 11-2Biomarkers for glaucoma
  • Track 11-3Pathophysiology in glaucoma
  • Track 11-4Advanced treatment in glaucoma
  • Track 11-5Primary glaucoma and its variants
  • Track 11-6Developmental glaucoma
  • Track 11-7Complications and Management of Glaucoma Filtering
  • Track 11-8Impaired ocular blood flow regulation in open angle glaucoma
  • Track 11-9How to use Resources to Prevent Glaucoma Related Visual Impairment and Blindness
  • Track 11-10IOP Lowering Molecules: New Ways and Old Problems (Intraocular Pressure)

Neuro-ophthalmology is the consolidation of neurology and ophthalmology, managing complex systemic sicknesses that have signs in the visual framework. Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) incorporates single visual brokenness created by harm to, or breaking down of the retrochiasmatic visual pathways without harm to the visual pathways or any significant visual ailmentMyasthenia gravis is brought about by a breakdown in the typical correspondence in the middle of nerves and muscles which prompts two fold vision hanging eyelids and different muscles shortcoming which affecting the both that is neuromuscular action furthermore vision and then nystagmus which is automatic eye development obtained in earliest stages that might bring about diminished or restricted vision. Variables like cerebral macular degeneration and ceaseless dynamic outside ophthalmoplegia likewise the major affecting the portion of neuro-ophthalmology. Demonstrative instruments in neuro-ophthalmology are utilized to treat the different state of neuro-ophthalmology as Neonatal visual examination are performed to screen the vicinity and movement of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

  • Track 12-1Visual Neuroscience
  • Track 12-2Neonatal ocular examination
  • Track 12-3Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Track 12-4Nystagmus
  • Track 12-5Retrochiasmatic visual pathways
  • Track 12-6Ocular myasthenia gravis
  • Track 12-7Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy
  • Track 12-8Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy
  • Track 12-9Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia
  • Track 12-10Diplopia
  • Track 12-11Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
  • Track 12-12Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
  • Track 12-13Vision and Cognition
  • Track 12-14Cerebromacular degeneration
  • Track 12-15Blepharospasm
  • Track 12-16Diagnostic tools in neuro-ophthalmology
  • Track 12-17Brain tumors or stroke affecting vision
  • Track 12-18Papilledema
  • Track 12-19Optic Neuritis
  • Track 12-20Optic Neuritis
  • Track 12-21Optic Nerve Disorders
  • Track 12-22Hemi facial spasm
  • Track 12-23Optic Neuropathy
  • Track 12-24Periocular trauma and optic nerve regeneration

A large number of virusesbacteriaparasites, and fungi can attack the human body, likewise attacking the surface or inside of the eye. The regular propensity for immunologic sickness is to influence the eye gets from various variables, for example, counter acting agent subordinate and immunizer intervened illnesses, Uveitisintraocular irritation, etc. The immune system plays a critical role during transplantation and as this corneal transplantation has turned out since the 1960s and more than 40,000 transplants were in 1990 in the United States and Canada. The microbiological disease, for example, parasitic endophthalmitis can influence the vitreous and assembly of the eye and subsequently the employments of anti-toxin in visual contaminations have been expanded to defeat these conditions.

  • Track 13-1Antibody-dependent & Antibody-mediated Diseases
  • Track 13-2Microbial flora of normal eye both aerobic and anaerobic
  • Track 13-3Fungal Endophthalmitis
  • Track 13-4Corneal graft reactions
  • Track 13-5Cell-interceded maladies
  • Track 13-6Antibiotics in visual diseases
  • Track 13-7Antibiotics in visual diseases
  • Track 13-8HLA-B27 Disorders
  • Track 13-9Anti-IL-6 treatment
  • Track 13-10Fungal endophthalmitis
  • Track 13-11Bacterial Conjunctivitis Empiric Treatment
  • Track 13-12Orbital Cellulitis Creature Particular Treatment
  • Track 13-13Advances in Immunotherapy
  • Track 13-14Ocular Neovascularisation

Clinical Ophthalmology will improve idea into normal visual illnesses, ophthalmic surgical and laser methodology, clinical life structures and visual therapeutics. Patients with eye diseases get examined by Ophthalmologists and Optometrists.

Surgical Ophthalmology is a sub-specialty of Ophthalmology, which includes surgeries like cataract surgery and laser eye surgery. Oculoplastic surgery-incorporates the organization of the eyelids, tear channels and re-gainful surgery, refractive surgery - is a process for progressing the vision. LASIK is the most performed kind of refractive surgery is (laser-assisted with situ keratomileusis), where cornea is reshaped using a laser. These methods which are used to perform surgery commonly known as Optometry.

 Glaucoma surgery may be a laser or non-laser, is the procedure for achieving main results like decreasing the production of intraocular fluid (aqueous humor) or increasing the drainage of this same fluid.

  • Track 14-1Community Ophthalmology
  • Track 14-2Eye and Surrounding Disorders
  • Track 14-3Retrochiasmetic Visual Pathways
  • Track 14-4Myasthenia Gravis
  • Track 14-5Glaucoma Surgery
  • Track 14-6Retinal Detachment
  • Track 14-7Strabismus Surgery
  • Track 14-8Oculoplastic Surgery

Ophthalmic vision science is the study of disorders of vision, plus diseases of the eye and the visual pathway. The tests and procedures of vision science includes:  measurement of the pressure in a patient’s eye and taking images of the eye and its supporting structures to determine the optical power of a lens to be inserted in the patient’s eye during surgeries and taking measurements for electrophysiological investigation of the eye and visual pathways.

Vision Science focuses on instructs as bioengineeringpsychophysicsneurophysiologyvisual neurosciencenuclear and cell science, cell layer natural science, self-governance, contact central focuses, visual infectionsrefractive headwaycorneal surface mappingcomputational vision, and 3D PC illustrating.

  • Track 15-1Visual System
  • Track 15-2Effect of Nutrition on Vision
  • Track 15-3Binocular Vision & Vision therapy
  • Track 15-4Contact Lens and Eye Implants
  • Track 15-5Ophthalmic technician
  • Track 15-6Ophthalmic Imaging
  • Track 15-7Ophthalmic surgery
  • Track 15-8Ophthalmic Lasers
  • Track 15-9Optics and associated vision analysis
  • Track 15-10Binocular Disorders
  • Track 15-11Vision Therapy
  • Track 15-12Optometry Therapeutics
  • Track 15-13Eye Implants
  • Track 15-14Contact central focuses and vision amendment
  • Track 15-15Optician
  • Track 15-16Astigmatism
  • Track 15-17Low vision and Colour vision

The retina is a slight layer of tissue within back mass of eye. It contains a large number of light delicate cells and other nerve cells that get and compose visual dataRetina sends this data to cerebrum through optic nerve, empowering to see. Retinal degenerative issue, for example, Age-related macular degeneration and near-sighted macular degeneration influencing youthful and old from numerous societies, races and ethnicities. The focal zone of the retina contains a thickness of shading delicate photoreceptor cells called cones which are in charge of shading vision and thus any deformity and modification in the focal territory of the retina will prompt colour vision imperfections ailments like diabetic retinopathy and retinal tumours can likewise be in charge of the lasting vision misfortune in the event. Retinal malady has a low need in avoidance of visual deficiency programs in creating nations. There are a few purposes behind this; it was suspected that retinal sickness was a remarkable reason for visual deficiency in the creating scene and that the gear required was too expensive and temperamental for use in a creating nation environment. At last, there is an absence of talented faculty with sub-forte preparing in retinal sickness.

  • Track 16-1Retinal tears and detachment
  • Track 16-2Age related macular degeneration (ARMD)
  • Track 16-3Retinitis pigmentosa
  • Track 16-4Cancers affecting retina
  • Track 16-5Retinoblastoma
  • Track 16-6Retinoblastoma
  • Track 16-7Cone-Rod dystrophy
  • Track 16-8Retinitis
  • Track 16-9Diabetic retinopathy
  • Track 16-10Retinoschisis
  • Track 16-11Gonioscopy procedure

Vision rehabilitation is used to improve vision and it is the process of restoring functional ability and improving quality of life, for an individual who has lost visual function through illness or injury. Visual rehabilitation services are focused on low vision, which is a visual impairment that cannot be corrected by regular eyeglassescontact lensesmedication, or surgeryVisual impairment is caused by some factors including brain damagevision loss, and others.

  • Track 17-1Moderate Visual Impairment
  • Track 17-2Severe Visual Impairment
  • Track 17-3Profound Visual Impairment
  • Track 17-4Profound Visual Impairment
  • Track 17-5Near-total Vision Loss
  • Track 17-6Total blindness

Ophthalmologists may also face many challenges during the diagnosis and treatment of the vision. They are facing problems in getting clear evaluations for many diseases. The combination treatments are still under construction. Ocular imaging tools to better evaluate both therapeutic strategies and the pathophysiology of many diseases are rapidly expanding and improving. Especially, improvements in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the posterior and anterior segment need further critical evaluation.

  • Track 18-1Effective practice of medicine
  • Track 18-2Handling of Equipment

The reception of new Ophthalmology methodologies into a doctor practice treats a constant infection of eye. The moderate course of the illness makes it troublesome for scientists and engineers of new ways to deal with figure out whether patients’ admission better with the new intercession and regularly taking numerous years and a few expansive studies to accomplish a sensible level of sureness. Since the most widely recognized exemplary technologies are connected with some conceivably unsafe results, when ophthalmology mediation is considered for a patient the ailment is regularly sufficiently genuine that vision is debilitated.


  • Track 19-1Lens Technology
  • Track 19-2Diagnostic Technology
  • Track 19-3VisionCare Ophthalmic Technologies
  • Track 19-4Optovue iVue Optical Coherence Tomography
  • Track 19-5Orbital Tissue Expander
  • Track 19-6Vitamin E Infused Contact Lenses
  • Track 19-7Retinal Implants

Advanced Ophthalmological Care is dedicated to providing state-of-the-art, individually based, high quality, eye health care covers a range of eye problems including cataractsglaucomacorneal diseasedry eyeretinal disorders, and ocular injuries. We have the common goal of ascertaining the appropriate care for any given patient, explaining the purpose of the treatment, and in initiating said therapy.


  • Track 20-1Laser Vision Correction
  • Track 20-2Laser-assisted cataract surgery
  • Track 20-3Premium lens implant
  • Track 20-4Premium Intra-ocular Lens implants (IOL)

Acupuncture is a family of procedures involving the stimulation of specific points on the body using a variety of techniquesAcupuncture benefits vision for patients with ischemic optic neuropathy. The acupuncture technique that has been most often studied scientifically involves penetrating the skin with thin, solid, metal needles that are manipulated by the hands or by electrical stimulation.


  • Track 21-1Jingming (UB-1)
  • Track 21-2Zanzhu (UB-2)
  • Track 21-3Yuyao
  • Track 21-4Tongziliao (GB 1)
  • Track 21-5Qiuhou
  • Track 21-6Keratitis

Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. The relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage (and whether it is acute or chronic), route of exposure, species, age, sex, and environment. Toxicologists are experts on poisons and poisoning.


Ophthalmic Case Studies is the collection of case studies which helps to get an insight on the typical history and initial examination of various ophthalmic disorders, which intended to give a simple overview of each disease. By reviewing these case studies will be able to recognize and describe the typical presentation of common conditions affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye; consider a range of multiple etiologies when examining patients with vision problems and to recall the basic pathophysiology underlying numerous ophthalmic conditions. It helps to evaluate the significance of clinical findings in relation to ophthalmic diseases and formulates a differential diagnosis after reviewing the patient’s history and ocular exam. It identifies laboratory tests appropriate to confirm and evaluate specific ophthalmic diagnoses and to discuss therapeutic options and treatment plans for a number of acute and chronic ophthalmic diseases.


There are numerous types of corneal degeneration, many of which are rare and some of which are familial. The most common type is keratoconus, a curious condition in which the central part of the cornea, normally spherical in shape, begins to bulge and protrude forward as a cone. The only symptom is deterioration of vision due to irregular astigmatism caused by the changing corneal curvature. Contact lenses are often more effective than eyeglasses in treating this condition. Advanced cases of keratoconus, and most other types of corneal degeneration, may require corneal transplants.


  • Track 24-1Scleritis
  • Track 24-2Corneal ulcer / Corneal abrasion
  • Track 24-3Snow blindness / Arc eye
  • Track 24-4Corneal neovascularization
  • Track 24-5Keratoconus
  • Track 24-6Uveitis
  • Track 24-7Iritis

Chinese ophthalmology is part of the Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Here diseases of the eyes are treated with Chinese herbs, acupuncture/moxibustion, tuina, Chinese dietary therapy as well as qigong and taijiquan. Inscriptions on oracle bones and tortoise shells from the Shang and Yin dynasties already contain indications of eye diseases and of their treatment in China. The work Essential Subtleties on the Silver Sea has had wide influence on the Chinese ophthalmology until today. It was probably written by Sun Simiao and published at the end of the Yuan Dynasty (1271−1368). A feature of Chinese ophthalmology is the "five wheels" and "eight boundaries". They characterise certain anatomical segments of the eyes and correspond to certain zang-fu organs. From changes of the five wheels and eight boundaries diseases and the necessary therapy may be deduced.

In modern Chinese ophthalmology in China as well as in Western countries diagnostic methods of Western medicine (such as the slit lamp) are combined with the diagnostic methods of Chinese medicine (such as pulse diagnosis and tongue diagnosis). Then a disease pattern is stated based on the theories of Chinese medicine.


An understanding of the used ophthalmic instruments is essential for any practising ophthalmologists. instruments according to procedures should be carefully handled by skilled and knowledgeable Ophthalmologists. Improving practice efficiency is likely to be successful when undertaken with a long-term view as well as an understanding of trends in the healthcare environment. It performs diagnoses and operates on eyes, by clinical techniques. Most ophthalmologists practice a mixture of medicine and surgery, ranging from lens prescription and standard medical treatment to the delicate and precise surgical manipulations. Most ophthalmologists practice a mixture of medicine and surgery, ranging from lens prescription and standard medical treatment to the precise surgical manipulations. Ophthalmologists understanding of the commonly used ophthalmic instruments are essential for every practitioner. Improving practice is more likely to be successful when undertaken with a long-term view as well as an understanding of trends in the healthcare environment.


  • Track 26-1Epidemiology in ophthalmology
  • Track 26-2Ophthalmology Practice Management Software
  • Track 26-3Genetic Practice in Ophthalmology
  • Track 26-4Refractive Management/Intervention
  • Track 26-5Ocular Manifestations of Albinism
  • Track 26-6Ocular Manifestations of HIV Infection
  • Track 26-7Ophthalmologic Approach to Chemical Burns
  • Track 26-8Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis
  • Track 26-9Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis
  • Track 26-10Sudden Visual Loss

This program gives ophthalmic experts the learning and abilities required to reduce blindness and visual disability in their populations by developing an evidence-based public health approach for the control and management of blinding eye illnesses empowers students to contribute effectively at a local, national and international level in research, training and benefit conveyance.


  • Track 27-1Delays to follow-up eye appointments
  • Track 27-2Optician practices and local hospital eye services
  • Track 27-3Networked ophthalmology care
  • Track 27-4National Eye Health Week
  • Track 27-5Funding eye research
  • Track 27-6Reducing vision-related falls
  • Track 27-7Community eye health
  • Track 27-8Using patient experience to improve eye care services
  • Track 27-9Sight loss and mental health

The lens is a transparent, avascular organ surrounded by an elastic capsule. It lies behind the pupil and is suspended from the ciliary body by a series of fine ligaments called zonular fibres. Its transparency is the result of the regular arrangement of the internal lens fibres, which form continuously throughout life. Interference with the growth or maintenance of lens fibres can result in the formation of abnormal fibres or fibre arrangements that cannot transmit light as well as the normal lens fibres. An opacity is thus seen in the lens. Minor irregularities are common in otherwise perfectly normal eyes. If the opacity is severe enough to affect vision, it is called a cataract.

Cataract in the adult may be the result of injury to the lens by a perforating wound, exposure to radiation such as X-rays, chronic inflammation such as uveitis, or ingestion of toxic substances or even of some drugs. The most common form of cataract is age-related cataract, so called because it becomes progressively more common with advancing age. Various types of age-related cataracts—called nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular—are distinguished by the portion of the lens they involve, their natural course of development, and the somewhat differing symptoms they elicit. The most common type, nuclear sclerotic cataract, forms as the centre, or nucleus, of the lens slowly undergoes compression and hardening, turns yellowish or brown in colour, and becomes less transparent. Typical symptoms include cloudy vision, poor colour discrimination, and changes in distance vision. Mature, more severe cortical cataracts can cause the whole lens to appear white. Posterior subcapsular cataracts tend to occur in younger people and can be troublesome even when small, depending on their location on the back surface of the lens